|Printable pdf version of the Database Notes|
Changes and issues
in RHB Section order
articles in Marhofn and Relative Matters magazine. The editorial team (in order of joining) currently comprises Graham Jackson, Chris Crocker, John Barnard, Simon Edwardes, George Gradwell, Jim Bloomer and Dave Marshall.
The database is provided in two principal formats: an Access database, from which Excel and csv versions are derived, and an online database accessible at Hill Bagging. Routines are provided to facilitate transference of personal ascent records between Hill Bagging and Access. Hill Bagging does not return the fields with absolute grid reference, latitude/longitude (except by reading off the map) or revision date, but gives additional fields for Catchment and Watershed, and links to photographs on the hill summits website. Hill Bagging is continuously updated with changes to lists and data and is therefore the most up to date. New versions of the downloadable database are issued at a frequency of two or three per year. Significant changes to hill lists (except for Tumps below 500m and subs) between releases are communicated via newsflashes on this site. All classification changes and signficant relocations are announced on Hill Bagging when they enter the database.
We place no restrictions on use of the data by third parties and encourage authors of other websites and applications to do so. We just ask users to observe the terms of the Creative Commons licence.list of discrepancies.
If you find any errors or wish to query data, please email the authors at the address on the home page of either of our websites.subs, Marilyn and Hump Twin Tops and a few historic and subjective lists (Bridge, Buxton & Lewis, Yeaman, Clem, Dillon, Trail 100). More information on the individual lists is given in Definitions and Background.
Some lists are subsets of other lists. For example, the Marilyns are a subset of the Humps, the Grahams are a subset of the Marilyns, and many lists are subsets of the Tumps. Some lists are not exact subsets due to discrepancies between lists.
1 For lists where the current or original definition is expressed in feet
* The Isle of Man is included in the British Marilyns, Humps, Dodds, Tumps, Deweys and SIBs, but not in the British Simms, Hewitts or Nuttalls. Some older lists of 2000ft hills in England and Wales, including Bridge and Buxton & Lewis, include Snaefell on the Isle of Man.
The Channel Islands are included in the British Humps, Tumps and SIBs.
1 As for Donald Tops but more than 17 units from the main top of the 'Hill' to which it belongs, where a unit is either one-twelfth of a mile measured along the connecting ridge or one 50-foot contour between the lower Top and its connecting col
Completions of the Munros, Tops, Furths, Corbetts, Grahams and Donalds are recorded by the SMC. Dave Hewitt gives details of Corbett completions up to July 2018. Completions of Grahams and Simms are recorded by Alan Dawson in the Relative Hills of Britain website.
Outside Scotland, the Hewitts (Hills in England, Wales and Ireland over Two Thousand feet high), together with the Nuttalls in England and Wales, are the most accurate and up-to-date of a succession of publications listing the 2000-foot summits. In Ireland, a popular list has been The Mountains of Ireland by Paddy Dillon, published in 1993. A listing of Irish hills equivalent to the Nuttalls was superseded in 1997 by a metric equivalent, the Vandeleur-Lynams. Some of the earlier lists are of historical interest but for practical use most people will have little reason to look beyond those mentioned above. However we acceded to requests to include Buxton & Lewis (1986) and Bridge (1973). The last two lists are defined by the original publication and are not subject to revision. The lists of Elmslie, Simpson and Moss have been republished online by Moss.
Completions of the English, Welsh and Irish 2000-foot hills are recognised by the Long Distance Walkers Association (LDWA). It might be thought unreasonable to treat England and Wales as one country, but only The Nuttalls will record completions in a single country.
The first publication to list the 500m tops of England and Wales was Michael Dewey's Mountain Tables in 1995. They effectively extend the Hewitts down to 500m. Completions are recorded by the LDWA. The Deweys were extended to Ireland by Michael Dewey and Myrddyn Phillips in 2000, and to the Scottish Lowlands (Donald Deweys) by David Purchase in 2001. Equivalent hills in the Scottish Highlands did not have a separate identity before publication in the DoBIH in 2011, but a list was compiled by Rob Woodall using data from Tony Payne, Clem Clements, John Kirk and others and uploaded to the rhb group in 2003 and updated in 2006. The data were comprehensively revised by the DoBIH team and with the agreement of Rob Woodall named the Highland Fives. In 2014 Jim Bloomer and Alan Dawson proposed in a Marhofn article a pan-GB metric equivalent called the Dodds (Donald Deweys, Deweys and Scotland) which reduced the upper height limit to just below 600 metres. The Dodds originally excluded the Isle of Man and could be regarded as a downward extension of the Simms. The Dodds entered the DoBIH in December 2017. The list is maintained by the DoBIH team. The Dodds were extended to Ireland in September 2020. Entry to the DoddHoF requires the ascent of 500 Dodds.
In Ireland, MountainViews has built on data from other sources to create the Arderins for hills over 500m high and the Carns for hills in the 400–500m range. In 2013 it published A Guide to Ireland's Mountain Summits: The Vandeleur-Lynams & The Arderins, reprinted with revisions in 2015.
Eric Yeaman's Handbook of the Scottish Hills, published in 1989, set a milestone by doing away with a minimum height. The criterion for inclusion was "an eminence which has an ascent of 100m all round, or, failing that, is at least 5km (walking distance) from any higher point on neighbouring hills". The list has not been maintained but was the forerunner of the Humps, in which the criterion was simplified to 100m of drop. The Yeamans were extended to England, Wales and the Isle of Man by E D "Clem" Clements in 1993. Originally called Yeamans of England & Wales or Yeomans, they were renamed The Clems after Clements' death.
The Marilyns was the first list with a criterion solely on drop. Published by Alan Dawson in The Relative Hills of Britain in 1992, the Marilyns have acquired a large following among hill baggers. Marilynists' interests are covered by a website and the forum Pedantic Publications that replaced the Yahoo rhb group in December 2020. Due to the inaccessibility of the St Kilda sea stacs it took 22 years for the list to be completed, a feat first achieved by Rob Woodall and Eddie Dealtry on 13 October 2014. The Marilyn Hall of Fame is open to those who have climbed 600 Marilyns. The Marilyns were extended to Ireland by Clem Clements in The Hewitts and Marilyns of Ireland in 1997.
Marilyns have a drop (minimum descent before ascending to higher ground; also known as relative height or prominence) of at least 150m. They were supplemented in 2007 with the Humps (Hundred Metre Prominence) which reduces the minimum drop to 100m. The list was compiled by Mark Jackson from a large number of sources and originally published online in More Relative Hills of Britain. There are almost 3000 British Humps, including three in the Channel Islands. The Humps were extended to Ireland by Jim Bloomer in 2011.
Background to the Humps is given in Hill Bagging. By analogy with the Marilyn Hall of Fame, Mark Jackson created the Humps Hall of Fame, requiring 1200 ascents of British Humps.
The Tumps (Thirty & Upward Metre Prominences) comprise all the hills of Britain with 30m or more of drop, with no minimum height. Thus it incorporates a number of other hill lists, and naturally owes its existence to many contributors over several years. The Simms and Dodds comprise the portion of the Tumps above 500 metres. The hills between 300 and 500 metres were first listed by Clem Clements and Myrddyn Phillips. Their work was made available to the rhb community in files compiled by Rob Woodall, which paved the way for a complete listing of Tumps to be released by Mark Jackson in 2009, upon finishing three years of on-and-off research into the c.8,000 hills below 300 metres. The original list was subsequently revised with the assistance of data from Myrddyn Phillips' lists of English and Welsh hills below 500 metres (the Pedwars, Fours, lower Welsh P30s and subs). The Tumps comprise over 17,000 hills and are a well established bagging objective. Andrew Tibbetts maintained and improved the list and in December 2011 released an Excel file containing the 10,000-odd hills not present in the DoBIH. This file became the P30 Appendix to the DoBIH in May 2013. It went through two revisions before being brought into the DoBIH in version 14. Improvements in online mapping and the availability of LIDAR data have led to many changes to the list in recent years. These are set to continue as LIDAR coverage improves.
Walkers who have climbed 2,000 Tumps are eligible to join the Tump Hall of Fame. The Tump Forum is on Google Groups. The Tump Forum and TumpHoF are maintained by Adrian Rayner. Suggestions for new Tumps can be made to the DoBIH editors or on The Tump Forum.
Such is the popularity of the English Lake District that a number of lists have emerged specifically for that region. The best known is the Wainwrights, which was almost certainly not conceived as a list. The Birketts is a more recent listing of Lake District Hills. The Wainwright Outlying Fells and the Birketts were each published as a set of walks rather than a list, but as with the Wainwrights, a tradition of climbing them has developed. The Synges is a longer list of Lakeland hills. The most recent list is the Fellrangers, which resemble an updated Wainwright. The LDWA recognises completions of all these lists except the Synges.
The County Tops of Scotland were first listed by Naismith in 1891, and of England and Wales by Moss in 1951. Other listings followed from 1973 onwards, including coverage of Ireland in 1985. In Britain, the frequent local government reorganisations have caused lists based on administrative boundaries to become quickly out of date, and some walkers may prefer to ascend the highest points of the historic counties. Simon Edwardes overhauled the county tops for the Hill Bagging website and produced lists based on both historic and administrative boundaries. These lists are given in the database and are the most up-to-date available.
A recent phenomenon has been the growing interest in bagging island summits. The Scottish Islands by Hamish Haswell-Smith includes the larger islands (minimum area 40ha) and has been used by some walkers to provide bagging objectives. This is a useful book but is perhaps targeted more at yachtsmen, as the criteria for island status are unintuitive from a hillwalker's perspective (it must be reachable only by boat at all tide states, so Skye is excluded by virtue of the bridge). Rick Livingstone produced an online table of Scottish islands using a 15ha criterion that is more attuned to hillwalkers but seems to be less well known. In October 2014 Alan Holmes published on the rhb group the most comprehensive island list to date, which he named The Significant Islands of Britain. It was targeted specifically at hillwalkers, uses both area and drop criteria, and covered the whole of Britain (later extended to the Isle of Man, Channel Islands and Ireland). There are various subsets; the main list, comprising the SIBs of Britain, is given in the DoBIH.
The categorisation of mountains worldwide by prominence is well established. For information visit the Topographic Prominence and Europeaklist websites and their associated discussion groups. An early US led initiative was to list hills worldwide with a drop of at least 2000ft (609.6m). Although a register of baggers' totals is maintained by Andy Martin, the prominence criterion has been largely superseded by 600m in countries outside the US, although a few lists have used 500m. In Britain and Ireland, lists with 600m ("The Majors") and 500m drop are offered on Hill Bagging. Internationally, 1500m drop has become the accepted standard for the most prominent mountains and the category is known as the Ultras. A more recent category, the Ribus, specifies a minimum drop of 1000m. It originated with listings in Indonesia and Malaysia, ribu meaning a thousand in the Indonesian language. It remains to be seen whether it will catch on.
In v11.2 we added the Trail 100 to align with the Hill Bagging website, which had added the list prior to merging with the DoIBH. The original list of 100 hills was published in Trail magazine in 2007 and had become popularised by becoming the objective of the WaterAid Trail 100 charity challenge. The list includes one Irish hill, Slieve Donard in the Mournes. The charity event was not repeated after 2008 and 2009, but the list continued to be referenced in Trail. The list was revised in January 2020. Summary of changes
A replacement creates a new hill in the database whereas a relocation does not. With the exception of minor Tumps, most moves of more than 400m will trigger a replacement, as will lesser moves if the summit has a clearly separate identity, or if the former summit is retained as a member of a different list (e.g. the former Marilyn summit of Wansfell is a Birkett).
Our definition of replacement is more liberal than that adopted by the RHB update sheets (in "Hill changes") or the Appendix to the Humps e-book (which requires 30m of drop between the original summit and the replacement). This is necessary in order that a change in location does not invalidate baggers' records, including walkers' logs on the Hill Bagging site. For example, Botley Hill, which moved by 1km, clearly justified a new record as many baggers had to revisit the hill following the change.
In doubtful cases we will create a new hill if there is a fair chance that a bagger of the former summit would not have visited the new one, recognising that most baggers will make an attempt to locate the highest point when there are plausible alternatives in the vicinity.
For minor Tumps (hills <500m that do not belong to other lists) we have taken a more flexible approach due to the large number of major relocations we were finding in data reviews. When there are few logs on Hill Bagging we often elect not to create a new hill, but all significant relocations are listed in the summaries of changes published on the home page of Hill Bagging and advertised on The Tump Forum. All significant moves are listed in the Tumps Change Register which is produced at each revision of the downloadable database.
A relocation is a significant move (at least 100m, usually more) that is worthy of mention but does not merit a replacement. Relocations are given in the Change Registers along with promotions, deletions and replacements.
Chronological records of changes (excluding data changes) are given for the following lists.
A change register for the Submarilyns up to 2016 is given on the Relative Hills of Britain site. 5337 Overmoor and 5344 Barns Cliff End have since become Submarilyns, while 2271 Mynydd Bwlch-y-Groes has been deleted.Change Control Database. Only the database editors can raise change requests, but users may propose changes by email. Changes go through the following stages:
GPS data submitted to the GPS database administrator or logged on Hill Bagging are recorded in an online GPS database that complements the Change Control Database. Submissions postdating the database's introduction in March 2015 have a positive Entry no. in the GPS Data sheet. Earlier submissions imported from the previous offline database can be identified by a negative Entry number. For those entries the corresponding Feature/Observations/Survey entries are taken from the DoBIH as of March 2015, but a full record of the original submissions is held by the database administrator.
All submissions are validated by comparing with existing records and/or checking on maps, as appropriate. Approved entries are fed into Hill Bagging at frequent intervals. Where a hill has existing data, the new measurement may replace the original (usually when a survey or LIDAR analysis has revealed the new location to be higher), otherwise the updated grid reference will be the average of all valid measurements. The xcoord, ycoord, latitude, longitude, GridRefXY fields and derived map links are recalculated from the new GR.
Summits and cols accurately measured by differential GPS instruments are recorded similarly, but a linked Change Request is raised to add the heights and col grid reference. This method is also used when adding a 10-figure grid reference from LIDAR and an associated decimal height. When the forms are linked in this way, the entries in the GPS Update fields are shown in the Change Request.
MarilynsBritish and Irish hills of any height with a drop of at least 150 metres on all sides. The geographical area includes the Isle of Man and the islands of St Kilda.
A Marilyn Twin Top is a summit of equal height to another Marilyn where the drop between the two is less than 150m and at least 30m. The only example is 21168 Knockalla Mountain NE Top in Ireland.
Cruachan Dearg, Meall nan Damh, Sidhean a' Choin Bhain (formerly twin Grahams), Cnoc Coir a' Phuill, Sgurr a' Bhac Chaolais, Middleton Hill, An Stuc, Carn Liath, Saugh Hill, and for a few years Stob Coire a' Chairn, were formerly twin Marilyns.
Many hills have alternative summit locations of apparently equal height that fail to qualify as Twin Tops. Examples of such hills feature in the RHB update sheets. For historical reasons a few of these summits have separate entries in the database. For other hills, alternative high points are noted in the Observations or the Comments field. It is left to the walker to decide whether all such points should be visited; on some hills there are many candidates for the highest point and the exercise could degenerate into pedantry.
HumpsBritish and Irish Hills of any height with a drop of at least 100 metres or more on all sides. The name Hump stands for Hundred Metre Prominence. As all Marilyns qualify as Humps, the classification code Hu is only used for non-Marilyns; however all Humps are returned in searches. The geographical area was extended to the Channel Islands in November 2011.
A Twin Hump is defined as a summit of equal height to another Hump where the drop between the two summits is at least 30m but less than 100m.
TumpsBritish hills of any height with at least 30m of drop. The geographical area was extended to the Channel Islands in September 2014.
A Twin Tump is defined as a summit of equal height to another Tump separated by a distance of at least 5km where the drop between the two summits is less than 30m. There is currently one Twin Tump.
SimmsBritish hills at least 600 metres high with a drop of at least 30 metres on all sides. The list was created by its author to replace the Murdos, Corbett Tops, Graham Tops and Hewitts. We have extended the Simms to the Isle of Man (one summit) and Ireland.
DoddsHills in Scotland, England, Wales, the Isle of Man and Ireland between 500m and 599.9m high with a drop of at least 30 metres on all sides.
MunrosScottish hills at least 3000 feet in height regarded by the SMC as distinct and separate mountains, based on a list originally published in 1891. Subsidiary summits meeting the height criterion are designated Munro Tops; note however that the 'Tops' as defined in Munro's Tables includes the Munros. Summits equivalent to the Munros and Tops in England, Wales and Ireland on the SMC's list are known as Furths.
MurdosScottish hills at least 3000 feet in height with a drop of at least 30 metres on all sides. All Murdos are Munros or Munro Tops but some Munro Tops fail to qualify as Murdos. The list now has "historic" status.
CorbettsScottish hills between 2500 and 2999 feet high with a drop of at least 500 feet (152.4m) on all sides.
Corbett TopsScottish hills between 2500 and 2999 feet high with a drop of at least 30 metres on all sides. The TACit publication divides them into three sub-categories: Corbetts, Corbett Tops of Munros, and Corbett Tops of Corbetts. The list now has "historic" status.
GrahamsScottish hills between 2000 and 2499 feet high with a drop of at least 150 metres on all sides.
Graham TopsScottish hills between 2000 and 2499 feet high with a drop of at least 30 metres on all sides. The TACit publication divides them into five sub-categories: Grahams, Graham Tops of Munros, Graham Tops of Corbetts, Graham Tops of Grahams, and Graham Tops of Hewitts (one hill). The list now has "historic" status.
DonaldsHills in the Scottish Lowlands at least 2000 feet high. 'Tops' are all elevations with a drop of at least 100 feet (30.48m) on all sides and elevations of sufficient topographical merit with a drop of between 50 and 100 feet. Certain of these are designated 'Hills' according to a formula based on both distance and drop: see the footnote to the second table in Summary of lists.
A related list is Dawson's New Donalds, not recognised in the database but searchable on Hill Bagging, in which the qualifying criterion is simplified to 30 metres of drop. The New Donalds is a subset of the Graham Tops and Simms. Anyone who has completed the Donalds and Donald Tops will have visited all the New Donalds.
HewittsHills in England, Wales and Ireland at least 2000 feet high with a drop of at least 30 metres on all sides. Although subsumed into the Simms, the list has been retained by its author.
NuttallsHills in England and Wales at least 2000 feet high with a drop of at least 15 metres on all sides, as published in The Mountains of England and Wales. The list includes 128 summits that do not qualify as Hewitts. Particularly notable is Pillar Rock as its ascent by the easiest route is a Moderate rock climb or Grade 3 scramble. Many of these additional summits, including Pillar Rock, also feature in Bridge's and Buxton & Lewis's lists. Completions without Pillar Rock are accepted by the LDWA and the Nuttalls, though this is noted in the record. MountainViews with subsequent revisions until his death in 2011.
DillonsHills in Ireland at least 2000 feet high published in The Mountains of Ireland. There is no prominence criterion. 14 Dillons are not Hewitts; 13 have drop <30m, while 20213 Corcog has a 609m spot height (the old 1:10560 map shows 2012ft which converts to 610.6m on the new datum). 10 Hewitts are not Dillons. In addition, the Dillons and Hewitts give different summits (20057 vs. 20571) for Tievummera.
DeweysHills in England, Wales and the Isle of Man at least 500m high and below 609.6m with a drop of at least 30m on all sides. Equivalent lists offered by the DoBIH are the Donald Deweys in the Scottish Lowlands and the Highland Fives in the Scottish Highlands.
The most awkward Dewey is Great Links Tor, which even with the aid of a ladder to gain the crag presents difficulties on wet rock. A completion without Great Links Tor is accepted by the LDWA, though this is noted.MountainViews and named in 2009. The name comes from the 527m hill which is the County Top for both Laois and Offaly and means, from the Irish, "Height of Ireland". MountainViews, based on a list originally supplied to the Mountaineering Council of Ireland by Myrddyn Phillips. The name comes from Carn Hill, Cnoc an Chairn, "hill of the cairn" in the Sperrins. We have overhauled the data using current and old maps and produced an updated listing identified with the classification code 4. The MountainViews list can be obtained in searches via the code Ca. Differences between the two lists have been tabulated. discrepancies.
WainwrightsThe 214 hills listed in volumes 1-7 of Wainwright's A Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells.
For a good many hills the summit location is not the highest ground in the vicinity. This is often due to Wainwright's preference for a recognisable feature such as a cairn (which may have disappeared). It is not always straightforward to identify such locations on the map, but most are now resolved following site visits.
The list at the back of Wainwright's book contains 110 named fells and summits. Close inspection shows seven of them to refer to other hills in the list, while Newton Fell has two summits. Thus:
BirkettsLake District hills over 1,000ft listed in Bill Birkett's Complete Lakeland Fells.
SyngesLake District hills over 1,000ft published in Tim Synges's The Lakeland Summits (1995, out of print). The book aims to list every significant summit over 300 metres in height within the National Park, including the 214 hills in Wainwright's Pictorial Guides. Distinctions are made between summits above or below 600 metres, between mountains (drop at least 30m) and tops, and between Wainwrights and non-Wainwrights.
FellrangersLake District hills included in Mark Richards' Fellranger walking series, a set of eight volumes inspired by the Wainwright guides. The series is being revised and retitled over a period of 18 months. Three hills were added to the original list in 2020 following the extension of the Lake District National Park.
YeamansScottish hills with a drop of 100m, or, failing that, at least 5km (walking distance) from any higher point. The list is not maintained and has "historic" status.
ClemsHills in England, Wales and the Isle of Man with a drop of 100m, or, failing that, at least 5km (walking distance) from any higher point. The list is not maintained and has "historic" status.
County boundaries change over time. There are different county lists, covering the traditional historic counties and the more recent mixtures of administrative areas.
We provide three separate lists of county tops that we believe are the most commonly used in the pursuit of county top bagging:
For completeness, we have also provided a list of London Borough tops. In terms of administrative tier, these are at the same level as Metropolitan Districts.
Twin tops are listed for some County Tops.
For further information on British county history, see Hill Bagging.
The list was researched by Alan Holmes, who made it available to members of the rhb group on 30 October 2014. Originally the geographical coverage was confined to Britain. Version 10, released in September 2018, extended coverage to the Isle of Man, the Channel Islands, and Ireland. The DoBIH does not offer the Irish SIBs. An independent list of Irish islands is offered by MountainViews.
The source file (no longer published on the rhb group but circulated to members of the Relative Hills Society) includes a further category of SQUIB, which stands for Small QUirky Island of the British isles. The DoBIH does not offer the SQUIBs.
All deleted tops are present in the database, but only deletions in the SMC lists, the Grahams which have been adopted by the SMC but are not authored by them, and deleted Nuttalls are identified by a classification code. Deletions in other hill categories are sometimes recorded in the Comments field but the Change Registers are the main record.
The deletion categories are:
In the TACit booklets the "sub" categories include hills falling short on height, and there are additional categories for Subcorbetts and Subgrahams. The new definitions appeared in Marhofn in May 2006. The rationale for the change, as explained in an rhb group message, was that hills falling short on height had been subsumed into larger lists.
The statistical error associated with heights on OS maps means that some marginals have a non-negligible probability of qualifying for a list. Serious baggers who wish to legitimately claim ascent of all hills meeting the list criteria will need to climb some subs, in addition to hills falling short on height. As a rough guide, for hills whose height and drop have not been accurately surveyed you should climb those within 3m of the qualifying height and 6m of drop; for more detailed guidance see section 4 of Accuracy of heights from OS maps. It would be wrong, incidentally, to assume that hills falling short on both height and drop have an insignificant probability of qualification, as the two are correlated. Birks Fell was at one time listed with height 608m and drop 29m.
The following abbreviations are used when referring to sources:
Hill NameThe name(s) by which the hill generally appears in lists and maps. If this varies, we usually prefer the name most compatible with current OS mapping unless another name is particularly well known. Alternative names are given in square brackets. Qualifiers are enclosed in round brackets.
For some multi-topped hills e.g. Liathach and Quinag, the SMC gives both names. For Munros and Corbetts, the Name field gives the two names separated by a hyphen. This allows users to search the database on either name. For Munro Tops we only give the summit name, as the range name will appear in the Parent (SMC) field. We have followed the same convention for a few non-SMC hills where the summit has a different name from the hill, usually when the original list gives both e.g. Birnam Hill - King's Seat.
Scots Gaelic names have a space after a' when this is a contraction of "an". Thus we give Stuc a' Chroin rather than Stuc a'Chroin. The space is grammatically correct and is usually present on OS maps. Prior to version 16 we omitted the space to align with RHB, the TACit Tables and most hill names in Munro's Tables, but the SMC gives a space in their more recent publications and other authors are starting to do so. Searches on hill name in the Access version of the database and on Hill Bagging will work with or without a space.
To facilitate searching, accents in Gaelic and Welsh names have been removed.
Irish hill names are taken from MountainViews and Clements' TACit Tables. For British hills we try to include all names appearing in maps and lists that users are likely to search on, even if incorrect.
For Donald Tops the 1953, 1969 and 1974 editions of Munro's Tables show the hierarchy correctly but later editions do not. For example, hill 1652 Ben Ever is a top of Ben Cleuch but from 1981 onwards is shown underneath Blairdenon Hill, and hill 1897 Coomb Dodd is shown above rather than below its parent Hillshaw Head. Parents of former Section 13—Appendix hills and the Glen Artney hills that entered the Tables in 1997 have been assigned by us.
Tidal islands lacking a Marilyn will have a parent if the col height is greater than zero when measured to the appropriate datum (Ordnance Datum Newlyn in mainland Britain and Malin Head for all Ireland).
Sections 43-56 apply to Ireland. We have created Section 57 for the Channel Islands.
Subsequent to the publication of RHB, the boundary between Sections 1 and 26 was moved to follow the course of the Highland Boundary Fault, resulting in some hills being moved from 1B to 26B. The boundary between Sections 10B and 10C was moved eastwards to Loch Blair and the Allt a' Choire Riabhaich. This resulted in Sgurr Mhurlagain being transferred from 10B in RHB to 10C in Corbett Tops and Corbetteers.
Hills duplicated in more than one section of the RHB/TACit Tables, or which could be put in more than one section, have been treated as follows:
Hills on the England-Scotland border
Black Mountain (2242, Wales)
Cuilcagh (20137, Ireland)
Section nameThe name of the RHB/TACit Section.
A few hills on the Scotland–England border belong to "Cheviots" in the Nuttalls' volume and "Roxburgh and Cheviots" in the Donalds listing in Munro's Tables. This presents a problem with the Excel and csv versions of the database, unless one adopts the clumsy solution of giving each list a separate Area field. Furthermore, in version 12 we wished to assign area names to other Lowland hills and "Roxburgh and Cheviots" is far from ideal. All versions of Munro's Tables prior to 1997 give two areas, "Roxburgh" (section 11) and "Cheviots" (section 12). The SMC amalgamated the two regions when they removed Auchope Cairn and the six unnumbered English tops in 1997, leaving only three hills in total. We decided the simplest solution was to revert to the pre-1997 sections, as "Cheviots" is also the Nuttalls area name. Accordingly, 1906 Cauldcleuch Head is in "Roxburgh", and 1846 Cairn Hill West Top, 2303 Cairn Hill and 2305 Auchope Cairn are in "Cheviots". There is no conflict between Nuttalls and Wainwrights because the Nuttalls use the Wainwright volume titles.
For Wainwright Outlying Fells we have extended the areas defined in the Pictorial Guides by continuing the Windermere boundary southwards along the River Leven to Greenodd, and from Bassenthwaite Lake north-west along the River Derwent. In England and Wales, Nuttall and Wainwright areas have been assigned to many other hills falling within their boundaries, with Central Wales subdivided into three regions, but this process is incomplete for the Tumps.
In Wales, we needed to define the boundary between the Arans and Berwyns for the hills south of Bala from Rhiwaedog-uwch-afon (3421) in the north to Mynydd Maes-glas (3424) in the south. The easiest solution would be to put them all in the Arans or all in the Berwyns. However in the Nuttalls' book, Moel y Cerrig Duon (2116) belongs to the Arans and Foel y Geifr (2115) and Foel Goch (2123) to the Berwyns. Topographically this is not logical, but the Nuttalls clearly did so because Moel y Cerrig Duon is conveniently included in the same walk as the hills west of the road summit. Our solution is to assign those hills south of Moel y Cerrig Duon and south-west of Lake Vyrnwy to the Arans, and those north of Moel y Cerrig Duon and to the north-east of Lake Vyrnwy in the Berwyns, with the exception of Moel Eunant (3412) which is a satellite of Moel y Cerrig Duon. We feel this is the best we can do without breaking the alignment with the Nuttalls' book.
To divide the Arenigs from the Moelwyns we chose to make the boundary Ffestiniog-B4391-B4407. There are other options but none are demonstrably better. The Moelwyns (as defined by the Nuttalls) span two RHB sections, 30B and 30D.
In the Access version, the island name is shown in the Area field. To search on this field in Hill Bagging, list the SIBs and then select Hills by Island from the menu on the left.
The DoBIH does not currently offer an Irish island list.Humps e-book. Z08–Z16 were subsequently added to accommodate Tump islands. In Access, the Topo Section is a searchable option in the Area/Region dropdown box; in the results screen it is given in the bottom row of the Areas/Regions table.
Membership is calculated using the grid reference and pre-programmed polygons approximating the county boundaries. It may occasionally misassign a hill close to a boundary. Please let us know if you discover an error.
Other searchable categories not shown in the classification field are as follows:
The MT, CT and GT codes exclude Munros, Corbetts and Grahams, respectively.
Most unclassified hills are deletions. The remainder comprise two hills surveyed as falling short of Nuttall status before we recorded rejected new hills in the Change Log, and a few that existed on Hill Bagging before the databases were merged in v11. The Comments field should explain the presence of the hill in the database. Further information may be available in the Change Log accessed from the hill's page on the Hill Bagging website.
The treatment of man-made objects on summits is a contentious issue. The database adheres to the protocol described in Summits and Cols.Geograph website and rarely the vector maps on the OS OpenData website, both of which show many spot heights absent from the 1:25k and 1:50k maps. This has enabled us to refine many summit and col heights previously estimated by contour interpolation. All spot heights on the original 1:50000 Landranger maps are metric conversions of older imperial heights and they are only slowly being replaced. Many of these old heights were obtained by spirit levelling 100 years or more ago and are more accurate than the air heights on modern metric maps, but their positions on the map may be approximate and, as with air heights, they are not always at the summit. For some hills we have taken levelled heights from old 1:10560 or 1:2500 maps, where necessary adjusting for the change in datum from Liverpool Dock to Newlyn in 1921 (most corrections are <0.3m). All the British hills in the database have been reviewed using the new online mapping resources, the Tumps being completed in March 2015. Further changes to data are inevitable as existing maps are revised and new mapping resources become available. The free OS Maps offers 5m contouring throughout Britain, enabling col interpolations to be refined; a statistical study has shown that the estimates are appreciably more accurate than interpolations between 10m contours on Geograph mapping but the contours are occasionally unreliable.
Spot heights often differ between scales. Most discrepancies are 1m. Differences of 3m or more usually correspond to non-identical locations. The error in air heights from photogrammetry is ±3.3m so it does not follow that one measurement is right and another wrong; they are just different estimates of the height. In 2016 we completed a statistical analysis of the accuracy of map heights, using survey data from Alan Dawson and G&J Surveys. The study confirmed a previous finding that there is no difference in the accuracy of spot heights at different map scales, hence no reason to prefer larger scales.
LIDAR data is available in much of England, Wales, and a smaller part of Scotland. In favourable terrain LIDAR heights are considerably more accurate than those from photogrammetry but are limited by the spatial resolution (generally 1m or 2m) and are adversely affected by vegetation. An increasing number of heights in the database (currently well over 1,000) are taken from LIDAR, particularly for lower Tumps where coverage is greater. Due to the time taken to analyse the data, the majority relate to new Tumps, hills on the borderline of qualification for a list, hills where GPS submissions give conflicting summit locations, and hills where a surface network analysis conducted by Joe Nuttall on a digital elevation model derived from LIDAR and map data suggest the DoBIH location is incorrect. Decimal heights are given where justified by the nature of the terrain and/or our ability to identify the corresponding feature on the ground. Decimal heights from LIDAR can be identified by the absence of an entry in the Survey field. A comparison with heights surveyed by G&J Surveys is in progress. Some provisional conclusions are given in this article submitted to Relative Matters magazine.
We now have 10-figure grid references from GPS measurements for most hills in the popular lists. As described below, we use these to derive the 6-figure grid reference. For a growing number of hills we have accurate height measurements from differential GPS. Other publications may give different data. Often this stems from the use of older or different scale maps, but in addition a surprising number of authors do not quote grid references correctly. By convention, a 6-figure OS Grid Reference is the address of the 100m square in which the feature lies. This is given by the co-ordinates of the south-west corner of the square (the same rule applies however many digits you quote). For example, the trig point of Great Shunner Fell is located at SD 84862 97290 so the correct 6-figure grid reference is SD848972. TACit Tables comply with this convention but some list authors incorrectly round to the nearest 100m; in the above example they would give SD849973. Another reason for published grid references not matching ours is that the true summit may not be identified on the map; there are many examples in the database where a spot height or trig pillar is not at the highest point.
Before truncating the entry in the 10-figure grid reference field to create the 6-figure GR, we make a small adjustment to correct for systematic error in the GPS readout (see below). This ensures that 6-figure grid references and xcoord, ycoord values are unbiased relative to the OSGB36 datum.
For Wainwrights the author sometimes gives a summit location that is not the highest point of the fell. This is particularly true of the Outlying Fells. Our policy is to take the location intended by Wainwright. We have followed the same policy with the Birketts. Where there is a conflict between the location implied in the text and the grid reference in Birkett's book we take the former. Any doubtful cases are mentioned in the Comments field.
Metric heights are converted to feet using a factor of 1/0.3048.
Vertical heights on current mapping are relative to mean sea level at Malin Head. Earlier maps, including the half-inch maps, the 1:63360 District Maps, and the 19th century 6-inch maps, use the low water mark of the spring tide on 8 April 1837 at Poolbeg Lighthouse, Dublin. The Malin Head datum is approximately 2.7m above the Poolbeg Lighthouse datum.
Grid references are for UTM zone 30U and use the WGS84 datum. This grid is shown on the two "Official" paper maps although it is not the primary grid on the States of Guernsey Official Map, which uses the Guernsey Grid. The grid letters are WA for Alderney and WV for the other islands. Older maps use the ED50 European datum. The two datums give a difference of about 300 metres in grid reference. The extracts from the MoD maps published in the Sunflower guides, and some modern maps such as the 1:12500 International Travel Map of Guernsey and the smaller islands, use the older coordinate system so please bear this in mind when using the data. To avoid potential problems we recommend using latitude/longitude with third party applications.
Garmin GPS instruments use the WGS84 datum by default when set to UTM/UPS grid but return the absolute coordinates (shown in the xcoord, ycoord fields) rather than the lettered GRs. The same is true of GPS Utility. GPS Utility also offers the new Guernsey Grid.
There is also a new Jersey Grid, whose parameters can be found in a web search on "Jersey Transverse Mercator". This grid does not appear on the States of Jersey Official Leisure Map.
We are grateful to David Purchase for researching the maps and providing most of the data.prominence in the US, is defined as the height difference in metres between the summit and the col connecting the hill to a higher summit. Where there is more than one such col, the highest is chosen.
Cols are usually much less well defined than summits. Some 6-figure col grid references are subject to considerable uncertainty; even when spot heights are available, they are not always located at the col. Within much of Ireland there is no data beyond contouring for col position and height. There is, therefore, much greater use of contour interpolation and consequently lower accuracy.
Col heights and drops given to 0.1m are from surveys or LIDAR, as are most col grid references given to 8 or 10 figures.
For offshore islands, the col height is taken as 0m by convention and the Grid Reference field shows "Sea". This is also the case for a tidal island if the land bridge is submerged when the tide is at or above the Datum (Newlyn for mainland Britain or Malin Head for all Ireland).
As with summits, interference by man, whether by infilling or bridging the original col or creating a new one, necessitates a protocol for dealing with the altered topography. The rules followed by the database team are described in Summits and Cols.
With the exception of measurements derived from LIDAR data, all measurements were obtained on the ground, the majority with hand-held GPS instruments. The error in such measurements has been determined as ±8.5m (three standard deviations) in three independent studies, with the majority accurate to within ±5m of the summit feature. Many are more accurate than this because they are the average of two or more independent readings. Any measurements with survey grade GPS receivers (indicated in the Survey field) will be accurate to 1m.
A comparison of 246 OS measurements on trig pillars with our GPS measurements in 2006 revealed systematic errors in the GPS data. On average, GPS eastings range from being 7m higher than OS eastings in the westernmost parts of Scotland to 1m lower in the east. GPS northings vary from being 14m lower than OS northings in Northern Scotland to 9m higher in SW England. We are grateful to Darren Parker who had himself discovered this error and researched its cause. We reproduce Darren's explanation below.The latitude and longitude shown on all Ordnance Survey maps except the most recent are determined with respect to the OSGB36 (Ordnance Survey Great Britain 1936) datum [this changed to ETRS89 in 2015]. The OSGB36 datum is based upon a ground survey performed between 1936 and 1953 and uses the ellipsoid defined by Sir George Airy in 1830. The latitude and longitude can be converted to planar coordinates using a Transverse Mercator projection (once the origin is defined) to give the National Grid references we use. Since the advent of GPS the method of defining the National Grid has changed. It is now defined using the latitude and longitude determined with respect to the ETRS89 datum (which is based upon the WGS84 datum and uses the GRS80 ellipsoid) which are then converted using a transformation known as OSTN15 with respect to OSGB36. The OSTN15 transformation is not a simple transformation defined by equations alone, but because of distortions in the OSGB36 grid, it makes slight shifts in northings and eastings. The grids of northing and easting shifts between ETRS89 and OSGB36 cover Britain with a grid resolution of one kilometre. The shifts of a particular point are then interpolated from this grid. The OSTN15 transformation can be performed online at www.ordnancesurvey.co.uk/gps/transformation or using the Grid InQuest software obtainable via the site.
Thus the National Grid is now defined by ETRS89 and the OSTN15 transformation. A good guide to the subject is A guide to coordinate systems in Great Britain. Also available is an Excel spreadsheet with many useful functions for converting from one datum to another.
The OSTN15 transformation replaced an earlier transformation called OSTN02 on 26 August 2016. The difference in positional coordinates is a few centimetres at most so has a negligible effect on the database. Most height changes are also insubstantial, but some heights in NW Scotland and the Scilly Isles have changed by up to 0.3m. This will affect some surveyed heights in the database.
A GPS unit determines the latitude and longitude of its position in the WGS84 datum (which is almost identical to the ETRS89 datum). In order to display this position as a British National Grid reference the GPS unit must perform a transformation. Unfortunately, the transformation equations stored in the unit are not as accurate as the OSTN15 transformation. Garmin and Magellan units use a transformation known as a Molodensky transformation (the equations and required parameters can be found in "Department of Defense World Geodetic System 1984 - Its Definition and Relationship with Local Geodetic Systems, NIMA TR8350.2, 3rd Edition, Amendment 1, 3 Jan 2000"). This leads to the discrepancies highlighted above. The transformations used by other manufacturers have not been investigated.
A number of strategies are available to remove the errors introduced by the Molodensky transformation. GPS waypoints can be downloaded to a computer using free or commercial software and the WGS84 latitude and longitude extracted. These can then be converted to British National Grid references using Grid InQuest or the online program, both of which have a batch mode facility. Alternatively, if the British National Grid references have been copied from the GPS screen, these can be converted back into WGS84 latitude and longitude values using the Molodensky transformation equations directly or by using either of the free programs Geotrans or GPS Utility. As before, these can then be converted to British National Grid references using Grid InQuest. All three packages have a batch conversion facility.
When entering position coordinates of a location into a GPS, one has to bear in mind the source of the coordinates. If a grid reference has been read from the screen of a GPS instrument, then entering the grid reference into another GPS instrument using its own input screen will result in a point in the correct location (even though the grid reference may be incorrect). However, if the position coordinates are uploaded using computer software, the coordinates should be in the form of WGS84 latitude and longitude values.
Since we presume most users will be using 10-figure grid references for input to GPS instruments, we have not corrected the GPS measurements for the systematic error described above. Some ten-figure grid references were obtained with survey grade GPS receivers (see survey), and these instruments report accurate grid references to the OSGB36 standard. To align with the other data, the systematic error of the Garmin/Magellan instruments has been introduced into the grid reference using the reverse of the correction procedure described above.
Grid references from Satmap GPS instruments have a much smaller systematic error than the Garmin and Magellan instruments due to their use of a more accurate approximation to OSTN15. If you have a Satmap Active model you will obtain more accurate waypoints if you take the coordinates from the lat/long or GridRefXY fields.
Because 6-figure grid references are usually used with maps, we remove the systematic error in the 10-figure grid references before truncating them to derive the figure for the Grid Reference field. This is done automatically when applying a GPS update to the database by means of an Access VBA application that successively transforms the data to WGS84 and OSGB36 using components of GPS Utility and Grid InQuest. This operation also populates the Latitude and Longitude, xcoord, ycoord and GridrefXY fields.
The Irish National Grid was formerly defined by the Airy Modified Ellipsoid and the Ireland 65 map datum, which uses a transverse mercator projection. It is now defined with respect to the ETRF89 geoid and Irish Transverse Mercator. The transformation from latitude/longitude uses the OSi/OSNI Polynomial Transformation, which can be performed by GridInquest or online. Irish GPS measurements undergo the correction procedure outlined above for British data. OSi and OSNI changed the geoid model on 26 August 2016 in parallel with OS. Unlike OS they did not change the horizontal transformation, but heights have changed by up to 0.2m in the west of Ireland.
The feature to which the 10-figure grid reference refers is identified in the Feature field. Alternative candidates for the summit and other features of interest are given in the Observations field. Many GPS data contributors submit measurements for other locations that are not summit contenders. Only a few of these are entered in the DoBIH, but all are recorded in the GPS database from which the entries in the DoBIH are derived.Excel template; however we will accept data in any format. You can also submit your data on Hill Bagging if you are a registered user. Your GPS should be set up according to the manufacturer's instructions using British Grid as the position format and Ordnance Survey GB as the map datum. For Ireland, use Irish Grid and Ireland 1965, and for the Channel Islands, UTM/UPS and WGS84. GPS instruments take a few minutes to stabilise and give reliable data, particularly older models that do not receive the GLONASS satellites. Try to remember to switch on your GPS a few minutes before reaching the summit and try to leave the unit for at least five minutes to settle once it has locked on to satellites before taking a reading.
Some newer GPS instruments, e.g. Garmin Oregon and Montana models, have a built-in barometric altimeter and use this by default to record height in preference to the height measurement of the GPS. Please record the GPS height and not the height from the barometric altimeter.
If you have a Satmap Active GPS, please submit your measurements as lat/long. These instruments use a different transformation to convert lat/long to grid reference from Garmin models so we have to process the data differently. Our preferred format is decimal with a minus sign for W, e.g. 57.13781 -3.58466.
Please send your GPS data to for British hills and to for Irish hills. We welcome your input.
We do not publish 10-figure grid references from maps because spot heights and trig points are frequently not at the summit.
For a list of those who have contributed data, please see acknowledgements.
Where no survey equipment has been employed, we do not claim that the feature and its accompanying ten-figure grid reference represents the true summit of the hill; it is the best endeavour of the contributor who submits the data.
ObservationsThis field contains information that supplements the Feature field. Most often it gives ten-figure grid references for other high points, either alternative summit locations or features that have been surveyed as lower.
The protocol used by the DoBIH for defining heights and positions in the presence of water features, moveable rocks, man-made structures, or when ground has otherwise been disturbed by man, is explained in Summits and Cols. This protocol is also followed by the MountainViews surveyors in Ireland.
The most basic surveying tool we use is an Abney level which has a practical resolution of about 50cm of height per 100m of distance. This is sufficient to enable the true summit position of most hills to be determined, although the relatively poor resolution only permits height differences to be determined semi-quantitatively. A few summits in the vicinity of trig pillars were levelled to the flush bracket by Abney Level; the height difference from the figure in the OS Legacy Database was used to estimate the summit height. Our guide to choosing, calibrating and operating an Abney Level may be helpful to walkers using these instruments. Recently some contributors have acquired Hand levels with a 2x magnification manufactured by Kuker-Ranken or Seco. Our initial evaluation suggests these levels can give a resolution of 20-30cm per 100m distance in favourable conditions, the stability of the level being critical. However they are more awkward to calibrate than an Abney Level.
For hills where greater resolution is required, the survey team initially employed a Leica Runner 20 Automatic level, and subsequently a Leica NA730 Automatic level, purchased by a DoBIH editor. The Leica Runner has a x20 telescope and gives a resolution of about 1cm of height per 100m of distance, while the NA730 boasts a x30 telescope and correspondingly higher resolution of about 0.5cm of height per 100m of distance. An Abney level is a small device weighing about 150g which easily packs into a rucksack. An automatic level, e.g. a Leica Runner or a Leica NA730, weighs about 1500g, occupies significant space in a daysack and also requires a sturdy tripod.
The survey team also has access to a Leica Disto A8 laser measurer that measures both distances and angles. This was used to survey Castell y Gwynt and the depth of the railway cuttings at the cols of Lambrigg Fell and Milk Hill.
Optical levels are of limited use for determination of absolute height because they require a suitable datum e.g. a trig point of similar altitude that can be sighted directly or indirectly. Hills surveyed by this means include Birks Fell, Cracoe Fell and Great Yarlside. Optical levels enable accurate measurements of drop by differential levelling, and this has enabled us to determine the status of hills on the borderline of inclusion in the Nuttalls' and Dewey's lists. Because of the number of staff placements required and the time this would take, the technique is impractical for determining Marilyn status, where the drop is 150m. Differential GPS does not have these limitations, enabling accurate determination of height and drop for most hills. In 2009 a Leica 530 survey-grade GPS system was acquired, which was used on all surveys requiring accurate determination of summit height and for most measurements of drop. Prior to this purchase we surveyed Craig Fach and Mynydd Graig Goch by differential GPS in collaboration with Leica Geosystems. Many hills have had their drop measured by both optical levelling and differential GPS. Agreement has invariably been excellent, but levelling is more accurate.
In October 2012 G&J Surveys purchased a Leica Viva GS15 Professional GPS receiver to replace the Leica 530. The precision of the two instruments is comparable and dependent on the data collection time. For 30 minutes data collection this is about ±0.07m, for one hour's data collection about ±0.06m and for 2 hours data collection about ±0.05m. G&J Surveys generally uses 1 hour's data collection, but 2 hours when heights are to be ratified by Ordnance Survey. Where the new instrument has been used the Survey field contains the entry "Leica GS15".
The overall precision of a measurement is also dependent on the correct location of the col and/or summit. G&J Surveys does this with level and staff and in the case of cols takes measurements on a grid of flags laid out over the col area in order to determine its topography. This enables them to locate the position of the col as accurately as possible. For most of their surveys the overall uncertainty in summit height is ±0.1m and of col height ±0.15m (3 s.d.), but the nature of the terrain (see below) is critical. For more information see the survey report for the particular hill.
During 2012 a Leica RX1250 GPS receiver was acquired by Alan Dawson and many of his survey results are recorded in the DoBIH. The instrument's precision is the same as that of the GS15. Up to late 2012 no instrumental method was used to locate a summit or col, but a Leica Disto laser level is now used for summit determinations. These surveys are identified by "Leica RX1250" in the Survey field. Survey reports produced by Leica Infinity software are gradually being uploaded to the Pedantic Press website. Some earlier reports may be found at www.rhb.org.uk.
In December 2013 Myrddyn Phillips purchased a Trimble GeoXH 6000 receiver. His survey results up to the end of 2015 are included in the database. The precision of this instrument at that time was ±0.3m, poorer than the Leica instruments, but the Trimble has greater portability and requires much shorter data collection times. No instrumental method is used for locating a summit or col. Data in Wales and England identified by "Trimble GeoXH 6000" in the Survey field are from this source, with the exception of some measurements on hills in the Lleyn peninsula surveyed jointly with MountainViews and a few surveys of northern hills by Alan Dawson.
In Ireland, MountainViews has acquired a Trimble GeoXH 6000 receiver. As of v15.5, 129 Irish hills quote heights obtained with their instrument. A number of surveys were carried out jointly with MountainViews at the end of August 2013 to compare measurements made with their instrument and ours. The results are reported in A performance evaluation – Trimble GeoXH 6000 vs. Leica Viva GS15 Professional. Some further comparisons were made in Ireland in September 2015 and agreement was again very good.
When surveying summits and more particularly cols, the overall accuracy of the measurements is more often determined by the nature of the terrain than by the limitations of the equipment. If a summit is covered with thick tussock grass or heather, it can be difficult to establish the summit location even using automatic level and staff. In a very few surveys we have determined, from variation in level and staff measurements, uncertainties of up to ±0.2m. The situation is worse for cols of complex topography and thickly vegetated terrain, when uncertainties could reach ±0.5m on occasion. Clearly, without instrumentation to locate summits and cols, it is sometimes impossible to produce satisfactory estimates of the uncertainty in the measurements, which could exceed the above figures.
The heights of Foinaven and Beinn Dearg were measured by a survey company, CMCR, for The Munro Society.
Reports by G&J Surveys can be read on Hill Bagging. For details of the surveying methods and more detailed discussion of the accuracy of the measurements, see The Accuracy of The Munro Society Heighting Surveys and Determination of the Random Error in Level and Staff Measurements. Video footage of some of the surveys can be viewed at G&J Surveys.
Where an instrument was not required to determine the summit position, 'obvious summit' is recorded in the Survey field. A blank field denotes that the hill has not been surveyed.
For Irish hills, link to the hill's page on MountainViews. For hills not offered by MountainViews no map will be shown. For Northern Ireland, the resources on the Links page of this website can be used to access 1:50k and 1:10k mapping.Hill Bagging. The page offers links to additional mapping resources including OS Maps, Magic Maps, NLS (for historic mapping) and OpenStreetMap.
Detailed mapping is not available in the Channel Islands and Ireland, where Geograph uses Google Maps and OpenStreetMap, respectively.
For hills having an entry in the Grid Ref 10 field, the systematic component of the GPS error has been removed. For hills lacking a 10-figure GR, the 6-figure GR is converted to a 10-figure GR by padding with zeros. Used for generating the Geograph map links, which unlike Streetmap do not accept xcoord/ycoord or lat/long. Not shown in the search results table or in Hill Bagging, but available in the hills table of the Access database and in the Excel and csv versions.MountainViews website which takes the form mountainviews.ie/summit/xxxx where xxxx is MVNumber. Shown in the Excel and csv versions, and in the MVNumbers query in Access.
To summarise, the current status of the Beinn a' Chroin tops is as follows:
The current 1:25000 map gives a height of 1011m for the rocks near the trig pillar and 1010m for the Munro, resulting in the Marilyn being moved to hill 686 in August 2013. It reverted to hill 688 after that summit was surveyed as 0.3m higher in September 2014.1876 6" map this spot height is shown and corresponds to NG929128 (the 1902 map is identical). The same grid reference and height (974m) are given in the 1974 Tables. In the 1981–1990 Tables the summit position is moved to the western high point at NG928128 and the height is given as c968m, as suggested by the contemporary Landranger but lower than the old levelled height. Geograph and the OS vector map give a 974m spot at the original location. The Top was deleted in 1997. online Table. Accordingly, we have classified hill 715 as a deleted Corbett.
Following a survey which found Buidhe Bheinn to be 29cm higher, the SMC demoted Sgurr a' Bhac Chaolais on 3 November 2012. Thus Buidhe Bheinn is now the sole Corbett. The following day it was reported on the rhb group that the Marilyn pair had been de-twinned and the Marilyn moved from Sgurr a' Bhac Chaolais to Buidhe Bheinn.
Following confirmation that the Ordnance Survey will adopt the height information from the recent surveys carried out by the Munro Society, the Scottish Mountaineering Club (SMC) can confirm that it will amend the official list of Munros (Munro's Tables®), which it maintains, to show that Sgurr nan Ceannaichean (913m) is now no longer a Munro. This change brings the number of separate summits in former SMC member Sir Hugh Munro's list of 3000 foot peaks to 283. Sgurr nan Ceannaichean will be added to Corbett's Tables which the SMC also maintains and all future SMC publications will show these changes. The SMC is grateful to the Munro Society for its efforts and for bringing this revised height information to its attention.
Surveys of Ben Vane (915.8m), Beinn Teallach (914.6m) and Sgurr a' Choire-bheithe (913.3m) confirmed the status quo.Grough.
In 2007 The Munro Society commissioned a survey of Foinaven. The summit height, ratified by the OS, was reported as 911.0m. The new height is shown on the current 1:25000 map. A survey of Beinn Dearg (hill 970) commissioned at the same time confirmed the hill's Corbett status, the measured 913.7m equating to the old levelled height of 2998ft.
Then in August 2006 Ken Stewart obtained a new height of 914.95 ± 0.5m from the OS, derived from high order photogrammetry and GPS. On enquiring about the methodology, the OS replied The photo model was controlled using sub 0.1m accuracy GPS (i.e. points on the ground were fixed that could be identified on the imagery - GPS was not taken to the summit). The accuracy of the imagery heighting using this method is quoted as ±0.5m for the Z (height) value. Not everyone accepted the data as conclusive (see issue 69 of The Angry Corrie). Knight's Peak was eventually reclassified from Corbett Top to Murdo in 2010, but doubts remained.
The issue was finally settled by a survey carried out on 13 September 2013 by G&J Surveys in conjunction with the SMC and The Munro Society. The higher of the two summit peaks is 914.24m and the lower one, measured by Alan Dawson, 914.16m. The deletion of the Munro Top was announced on 13 November on BBC Scotland.
Craig Fach (2032, 30B) and Mynydd Graig Goch (2033, 30B)These hills, both with spot heights of 609m on contemporary OS maps, were surveyed on 11 August 2008 by our survey team in collaboration with Leica Geosystems. Craig Fach's Dewey status was confirmed but Mynydd Graig Goch was shown to be over 2000ft high, making the hill a Hewitt and Nuttall. The event is described in the press release. Many readers will be aware of the events that followed. The team had planned an announcement at Snowdonia Parks centre (Plas Tan-y-Bwlch) but had not achieved much success in getting the press to attend. Then the BBC got hold of the story and everything mushroomed, with coverage on Radio 4, BBC TV and ITV on Friday 19 September and in the national newspapers the following morning. The promotion of Mynydd Graig Goch to "mountain" status may have provided the whimsical note that captured the nation's interest, but a contributory factor might have been the relief afforded from the relentless stream of financial and economic bad news.
Mynydd Ceiswyn (3431, 30F) and Domen-ddu (3466, 31B)Added to the original list of 500m summits (with Great Yarlside) by Michael Dewey, but challenged on the rhb group by Rob Woodall and others. These hills, together with Great Yarlside, were promoted on the basis of measurements on walkers' GPS instruments, which lack sufficient accuracy for this type of work. All three hills have since been shown by accurate levelling to lack the required drop. Details can be found in Survey Reports. A number of other Deweys, mostly hills added after publication of the original list, have been demoted after surveying. See the Dewey change register for a full list of changes. second survey in June 2010, using equipment capable of higher resolution, found the east top to be 7cm higher. Accordingly hill 2197, formerly an alternative summit mentioned in the rhb update sheet, is now the Marilyn. Hill 2196 has been renamed West Top.
The 1:25000 map is misleading, as the summit is within the 440m contour ring 160m to the east of the easterly 442m spot. Furthermore, the largest scale on Geograph gives a 441m spot height at the summit, lower than the other two contenders and contradicting the survey results.surveyed the hill on 13 September 2011 on an occasion to mark the 10th anniversary of the Database of British Hills. The northern summit, Twr y Fan Foel (hill 5603) is 0.75m higher than the trig point (hill 2230). The result was accepted by the list authors, so the Marilyn, Hewitt and Nuttall moved to hill 5603. Hill 2230 remains the Buxton & Lewis, Bridge and Trail 100 top. Summits and Portraits of the Database of British and Irish Hills (click on the image to view other photos) and on Geograph.
Summits and Cols decrees that for an unfinished or incompletely landscaped artificial hill, a point on the perimeter is chosen to represent the summit. In practice it is not always easy to identify the highest natural ground. The choice of location is of some importance because if the height were below 350.6m (100m above the LIDAR height of the col) the hill would cease to qualify as a Hump. After comparing the modern 1:25k map with the 1951 1:25k map, we have chosen a point at ST 1755 9075 at which the old path from the west has been diverted northwards to join the bridleway. It lies just below the 360m contour on the modern map. However the spoil heap is steep-sided and a height of c.355m is more consistent with the old map. The path is probably lower than than the trig point which is shown as 1171ft (357m) on the 1961 1" map. The contours on the modern 1:25k map are accurate to about ±5m whereas the trig height is accurate to ±0.6m.
The latest summit photographs and satellite imagery (2019) suggest the artificial summit is still some years away from gaining eligibility.Abney Level survey found the south top to be 1m higher. LIDAR data has provided further confirmation. locations for their respective summits on Armboth Fell. The Birkett summit is a large rock outcrop with a small cairn at the 479m spot height (NY 29677 15967). The Wainwright summit is a rock and heather outcrop at NY 29584 15740. Photograph 1 shows this summit alongside Wainwright's sketch. The cairn has been reduced to a mere handful of stones and is no longer visible from below. Supporting evidence for the location of Wainwright's summit is provided by photograph 2 which shows the "shepherd's cairn on a rock" alongside Wainwright's sketch. This can be found on a rocky outcrop at NY 29631 15534, which is almost exactly a furlong south of the Wainwright summit cairn. Again, the cairn on this boulder has been removed or destroyed. The prominence east of north mentioned in Wainwright's summit description is probably the 479m spot height. 1:25k map; the arrow shows the position of the 10-figure grid reference formerly in the database (it was replaced in v12.1 by NY45461630 20m SSW following the Abney survey). A detailed survey by Jim Bloomer with an Abney Level estimated the south top as 3-4m higher than the north top, supporting the mapping. The Nuttalls announced the move on 7 March 2012.
Prior to v11 we did not list the two summits separately. Hill 3838 was added to distinguish the location of the Birkett from the Wainwright and (sub)Marilyn.photograph on p.202 of Birkett's The Complete Lakeland Fells (the original photo is in colour but the scan has been reproduced in b/w to match Wainwright's sketch). The 410m contour ring at NY497148 is at best 412 metres high and is nothing more than a heathery mound that has clearly never had a cairn on it. Birkett's location is verified in a photograph of Wallow Crag taken by George Gradwell. levelling survey demonstrated that the hill lacks the required 30m of ascent. The Wainwright Outlying Fell is hill 2575, close to a circular concrete trig station. The height was mistakenly given on OS maps as 1986ft (605m) at one time, probably a transcription error as it was previously 1936ft, leading Wainwright to choose that location. Marhofn, previously not even a Submarilyn. A survey in October 2010 found the drop to be 150.8 ± 0.4m. The critical measurement is the height of the col, which is on a railway trackbed. The survey of the col is recorded in a video. LIDAR data suggests an alternative col on the railway 1km to the south is 0.1m higher. This is on a man-made embankment 2-2.5m above the valley floor, under which a stream passes through a substantial stone arch. From a site visit we estimate the trackbed to be 1-1.5m above the top of the stone bridge on soil/ballast as a footing for the railway. We do not regard this feature as the col. The surveyed col was "natural" ground at the side of the trackbed (not on ballast); it may have been altered by man but there was always a col there. square cairn at SD 29814 89815, height 221m (725ft). A survey by Jim Bloomer and George Gradwell with an Abney level established that the true summit, a 229m spot height on OS maps, is a rock outcrop at SD 29885 89889. The square cairn was probably the highest point on Wainwright's route over the fell to a second cairn at SD 29809 90026 (sketch on p.94). We estimate the second cairn (within a small 700ft contour on the 1:10560 map) to be at least 5m lower than the square cairn and yet Wainwright declares it to be at approximately 730ft, supporting our conclusion that he believed the square cairn to be at the 748ft spot. The positions of the two cairns and the true summit are shown on this map and photograph.
The trig point is the historic County Top of Durham. In v14 we created a new hill (8036) for this summit, which is also the Bridge and Buxton & Lewis top. It is a moot point as to whether the Nuttall should be taken as the location given in the book or, given the prominence definition, the surveyed location. To avoid compromising the logs of walkers who only visited the trig but regard the Nuttall as bagged, we have retained the Nuttall as hill 2714 and amended the entry in the Comments field.
The only other Nuttall with a non-trivial difference between the surveyed and book locations is 2028 Pen y Castell, where the separation is 230m.Nuttall and deleting it from the Deweys. The news was announced by Grough on 3 April 2013. For further details see the survey report. Following the refinement of Ordnance Survey's geoid model on 26 August 2016, the height has been revised to 609.65m.
This is the converse of the original result for Calf Top, another hill with a summit close to a 609m trig point where 6 hours of data collected on two surveys gave a height of 609.58m, 2cm below 2000ft, before the adoption of the new geoid model took it above the threshold.Dewey change register. Is Calf Top a new 2000ft mountain?. Then on 26 August 2016 Ordnance Survey refined their geoid model, replacing the OSTN02 transformation with OSTN15. This gave a new OS ratified height of 609.606m. The list authors were again consulted and agreed to promote the hill to Nuttall and Hewitt and delete it from the Deweys.
The impasse was resolved when our survey team line surveyed the hill from the trig flush bracket. A follow-up survey confirmed their finding that the hill was definitely above 2000 feet, their estimate being 610.4 ± 0.2m or between 2002 and 2003ft. Subsequently the Nuttalls obtained a revised figure of 2001ft at SD919764 from the OS (from a 1920 levelling survey) which they indicated will appear on the next update of the 1:25000 Explorer. The OS later (19 Dec 2007) indicated that the new 610m spot will be shown at SD 9186 7637, a little to the south west of the cairn and in agreement with the 1:50000 map. However they appear to have erred in putting the 610m spot at SD916763 on the latest 1:25000 map, approximately the same position as the previous 608m spot.survey results. Independent data from digital elevation models dismiss any real possibility that the col for Raw Head might lie in an area outside the surveyed region.
The man-made road has been raised above the level of the surrounding land, at least in parts. The contouring on the modern map suggests two possible locations for the natural summit (i.e. before the building of the road), each within a 150m contour. The southern location is at SK889236 and the northern at SK851310. A site visit confirmed the impression from photographs that at the southern location, 40m south of the crossroads, the road lies on a shallow embankment c.40m wide at the base and perhaps 2m high. The 10-figure grid reference in the database is for the locally highest point, determined by Abney Level as c.0.5m higher than the crossroads. The 1976 1:2500 map has a ground height of 150.8m at the crossroads (151m on the 1983 1:10000 map and on Geograph mapping); the 1888 1:2500 map has a 495ft spot height at the crossroads and a picket benchmark at 495.2ft at the south corner of the wood.
We have not visited the northern summit, for which there are no spot heights on old or current maps. However the natural summit could well be at this location, particularly if the contour at the southern summit includes the embankment. Hence we recommend that both summits are visited.
The relocation of this hill raises a bagging ethics issue for those who have only visited the original location. A resident of Scotland might feel aggrieved at having to make the long journey south to reclaim the Marilyn. However the Marhofn editor instructed HoF members to reduce their year-end total by 1 if they had not done so. A similar issue arose with the replacement of Sgurr a' Bhac Chaolais by Buidhe Bheinn, although many would regard it as de rigueur to climb both summits of a twin Marilyn. 19290 Hensbarrow Downs is somewhat different as it did not replace 2884 Hensbarrow Beacon until the area was settled and landscaped; some would see no reason to amend their logs if they bagged the Beacon while the Downs was still a spoil heap.
We have agreed with MountainViews a relocation to point C, with adoption of the name Bunnanimma and 268m for the summit height.old UTM30 grid, as does the 1:10560 map.
The States of Guernsey Official Map (2010) has no spot heights.
Both imperial maps show a 460ft contour ring NE of Les Platons centred at WV658560 on the old UTM grid system. The current map has a 140m contour here, centred on WV657557 on the new UTM30 grid. The 1969 map gives a spot height of 376ft (115m) within this contour; the other maps have just the contour ring. However the 1969 map has colour-coded topographical shading and there is only one 400ft contour on Jersey. Within that contour, the next highest spot after Les Platons is 436.7ft at WV662553. It seems clear that that the 460ft/140m contour is actually 360ft/110m and a labelling error in the early map has been propagated in modern maps. This may be the source of the 143m "unnamed location" quoted in the CIA World Factbook and reproduced in other web pages, which some articles have subsequently associated with Les Platons.downloads for instructions. There is small loss of functionality in Access 2000.
The Hills table is at the core of the database. Classification (hill list) and Area information are in separate tables, with "link" tables to identify the Classes and Areas to which a hill belongs.
You do not have to be knowledgeable about relational databases to use it. Viewing hill data, and logging your ascents, are simplified by the provision of a number of forms and screens.
The Userlog facility allows you to record date climbed and other details of the ascent. There is a User table that allows multiple users to share the same copy of the database, each maintaining separate logs. Users pursuing second or subsequent rounds will find it helpful to assign separate user names to each round in order to monitor their totals for the repeat rounds.
On opening the database you are presented with a Welcome screen, which is the start point for all the facilities provided by the database. It provides the following options.
Older devices, e.g. the earlier eTrex models, connect to a computer via a com port. A USB conversion cable can be purchased, but some users have reported difficulty in getting it to function.
Grid references are uploaded to the two types of instrument in different ways.
Uploading grid references to later modelsTen-figure grid references of all hills are available in a Point of Interest (POI) file accessed on the downloads page or from a query in the Access database. Bernie Hughes' file contains all British hills in the database. The facility on Hill Bagging allows the user to select a subset of hills meeting particular criteria. The latter has a "long" version that includes all the key fields in the database (as does Bernie Hughes' file), and a "short" version that has only the location, hill name and height. The "POI csv extract" query in the Access database (accessible from the Queries menu) returns the "long" version.
Connect your GPS to your PC. Create a subfolder named POI in the Garmin folder of the GPS and copy the file into it. No further action is needed for Bernie Hughes' file as it is already in gpi format. If you created the file in Hill Bagging or Access, save it as filename.csv (rather than .txt) and upload it to your Garmin device using Garmin POI Loader. NB. Do not use numeric characters in your filename – they will cause speed/proximity alerts to be added to your POI.
Disconnect the GPS from the PC and switch it on. You might have to experiment to learn how to display all the data in the POI file. On a Garmin eTrex 20 the process is as follows (Click means push down on toggle switch):
You will now have a screen with the name of the hill at the top, map in centre and Go button at bottom.
For the models listed above the screen will display all the hill details in the POI file, viz. name, height, ten-figure grid reference, hill number, classification, feature, and (depending on the file) other fields such as climbed date, drop, map, observations, survey and comment fields. The fields following the name, height and ten-figure grid reference are combined and presented in the Comment box of the instrument. Note that some earlier models with USB connectivity (not in the list above) do not have a Comment box and therefore do not display this information. The "short" version obtained from Hill Bagging is suitable for those. We would be grateful for information on other models.
For hills where no ten-figure grid reference has been recorded, the grid reference is for the SW corner of the 100m square in which the summit is thought to reside and consequently the GPS will not take you to the summit itself. These hills are easily identified in instruments where a Comment box is displayed because such hills lack a feature, observation and survey entry.
Waypoints may be uploaded to the GPS via a GPS exchange (gpx) file. This can be created using the facility on Hill Bagging mentioned above (link on Downloads page). Alternatively, it can be created in GPS Utility by a similar method to that described below, i.e. by creating a text file from a csv file using GPSU File Converter, opening it in GPS Utility and then saving it as a gpx file. The file may then be copied to the GPX subfolder in the Garmin directory of the GPS.
Uploading grid references to early modelsGrid references from the database can be uploaded to a GPS unit using appropriate software. We have evaluated two packages: GPS Utility and G7toWin. The free version of GPS Utility has limitations on capacity which can be removed by registering for a modest charge. G7toWin is freeware. We have not evaluated commercial packages such as Anquet Maps and Memory Map.
Instructions for GPS UtilityDownload both GPS Utility and GPSU File Converter. The latter converts files with a csv extension to text files that open in GPS Utility. The steps involved in the process of uploading a file to a GPS are as follows.
Setting up GPSU File ConverterOpen the application and enter the following information:
Setting up GPS Utility
Note that it is the unique Hill Number that is transferred to the GPS in our test file and not the Hill Name. The earlier eTrex models only accept six characters for a waypoint name and most hill names are much longer than this. Unique Hill Numbers do not exceed six characters in length. When starting a walk, the appropriate Hill Number will be visible in MapView (when set to the appropriate scale) on the eTrex and the user will be able to identify the correct hill to select in GOTO when approaching the summit area. We have uploaded a dataset of twenty hills to a Garmin eTrex and successfully navigated to all of them in this way. Whilst the hill name is a useful identifier in the csv file, it is not necessary once the whole dataset is in the GPS. However if the user prefers to abbreviate hill names and use these as the ID, this is easily accommodated by GPS Utility.
GPS Utility (GPSU) text files can also be created in Hill Bagging.
The ten-figure grid references in the database will usually take the user to within 5m of the target feature. The database is available in csv format from the downloads page, while user-specified subsets can be created by the Hill Bagging website to registered users. We recommend you use one of these versions to create the files for uploading to your GPS.
We are grateful to Darren Parker who first kindled our interest in uploading ten-figure grid references from the database to a GPS instrument, and to Bernie Hughes for first creating POI files from the database.
For Marilyns and Grahams, the hill order in RHB/TACit can be reproduced approximately by further sorting by descending height.
We are particularly keen to receive 10 figure GPS measurements from readers. Please see under 10 Figure Grid References for the information we need.
Hill surveying using cutting edge techniques was pioneered by two DoBIH editors as a means of gaining accurate data on hills where height, drop or location are critical. Surveys by the survey team (G&J Surveys) are carried out to professional standards and, subject to validation, data is accepted by Ordnance Survey as it is collected to OS protocols. Hills where OS has adopted new summit heights supplied by the team include Sgurr nan Ceannaichean, Beinn a' Chlaidheimh, Beinn Dearg Mor, Knight's Peak, Carn na Caim South Top, Creag na Caillich, Cnoc Coinnich, Glyder Fawr, Tryfan, Mynydd Graig Goch, Calf Top, Thack Moor and many others.
The team has access to a Leica GS15 survey-grade GPS capable of measuring height to 5cm, a Leica NA730 automatic x30 telescopic level, two Leica Runner automatic x20 telescopic levels, two 1m surveyor's staffs extendable to 5m, four tripods and a Leica Disto A8 for measuring distance and angles. This suite of equipment enables them to determine absolute height and drop, usually to 0.1m or better, in almost any terrain.
We have received a number of donations from supporters and are very grateful to everyone who has helped us.
Anyone wishing to support the fund can do so via the PayPal link or by contacting one of the editors. A "to do" list of candidate hills for surveying is available in Excel and can be forwarded on request. If you have suggestions for hills to survey please forward these to . We welcome your input.
We are grateful to the following walkers for contributing 10-figure GPS readings to the database: Adrian Snowdon, Alan & Kathy Duval, Alan Moore, Alasdair Alexander, Alex Barbour, Andrew Brown, Andrew Round, Andy Lindley, Andy Tomkins, Andrew West, Anthony Duffield, Anton Ciritis, Bengt Karlsson, Bernie Hughes, Bert Barnett, Bill Morden, Brian Diggle, Brian Matthews, Carolyn Hastings, Charlie Leventon, Charlie Scrimgeour, Chris Bienkowski, Chris Clissold, Chris Derrick, Chris Peart, Chris Watson, Chris Walker, Clive Richardson, Colin MacKenzie, Conrad Izatt, Craig Mungin, Dale Wilson, Darren Groutage, Dave McGimpsey, David Baird, David Brown, David Butterfield, David Claymore, David Gradwell, David Purchase, David Williams, David White, Del Wilson, Dennis Foster, Derek Blackburn, Derek Norry, Derek Snaith, Des Taylor, Douglas Law, Douglas Robertson, Gareth Solomon, Gerry Bowes, Grant Bain, Henry Marston, Ian Baines, Ian Henderson, Ian Walter, Iain Macaulay, Iain Rudkin, Idwal Jones, Jim Coombes, John Edwards, John Smith, John Stoneham, Jonathan Glew, Jon Metcalfe, Jonathan Russell, Judy Catterall, Justin Dunn, Ken Wood, Laurence Rudkin, Lewis Donald, Lindsay Boyd, Lindsay Shaw, Lionel Bidwell, Liz Nicholas, Lyndon Day, Malcolm Ratcliffe, Mark Smith, Mark Trengove, Martin Richardson, Martin Roberts, Michael Earnshaw, Michael Elcock, Mick Moore, Mike Mason, Mike Scott, Neil McVicar, Nigel Thackrah, Noel Williams, Paul Cawley, Paul Heaton, Paul Kingston, Paul Miller, Paul Ward, Paul Woodcock, Pete Fairhurst, Pete & Barbara Nelson, Peter Cottam, Peter & Liz Hastie, Peter Mitchell, Phil Catterall, Phil Sidwell, Richard Cooper, Richard Tibbetts, Richard Mclellan, Richard Webb, Rick Salter, Robert Davies, Robert Kerr, Robert Poole, Rob Woodall, Roger Hewitt, Ron Bell, Ronnie Bowron, Ross Drummond, Roy Davidson, Sandra Morrison, Simon Irons, Simon Winton, Stephen Dawson, Stephen Walker, Steve Smith, Steve Stobie, Stuart Joynson, Stuart Lawson, Ted Richards, Toby Thurston, Tom Levell, Tony Hartry, Tony Jenkins, Tony Watson, and Tuco Ramirez.
We are indebted to the authors of the lists given in this database, without whose efforts it would not exist: the SMC, Alan Dawson, Alan Holmes, John and Anne Nuttall, Michael Dewey, Paddy Dillon, Eric Yeaman, Clem Clements, Simon Stewart, Chris Buxton and Gwyn Lewis, Bill Birkett, Timothy Synge, Mark Richards and Alfred Wainwright. Their publications are well worth obtaining as they make stimulating reading and contain much interesting background on the lists.
Updated 18 May 2021